karl-henrik pettersson


Filosofiska tankar om företagande och ekonomi

Vilket samhälle vill vi ha? Hur mycket marknad? Hur mycket politik? Varför dessa ekonomiska orättvisor?

Samhällsekonomisk effektivitet, vad menas med det?

Det finns flera effektivitetsbegrepp inom nationalekonomin. Det som används oftast är sannolikt allokativ effektivitet. Ett viktigt nyckelmått som kan förknippas med allokativ effektivitet är produktivitet.
    Skall den allokativa effektiviteten bli hög, måste marknaderna så långt som möjligt vara fria från politisk inblandning. Det får inte finnas några störningar i friheten att sätta priser, inte heller några volymbegränsningar, ja överhuvudtaget får det inte finnas några marknads- eller produktionsregleringar. Inte minst viktigt är oinskränkt etableringsfrihet men även störningsfri exit. Det är också sannolikt att en ekonom med neoklassisk läggning skulle tillägga att hög relativ allokativ effektivitet skulle förutsätta att offentlig produktion begränsas till genuint kollektiva varor. En samhällsekonomiskt hög relativ tillväxt hämmas av offentliga monopol av produktion som skulle kunna privatiseras. Allokativ effektivitet har också kallats Smithiansk-effektivitet.
    Till det kan vi lägga ett annat effektivitetsbegrepp, Keynesiansk effektivitet, ett uttryck för att ett lands samlade produktionsresurser så långt möjligt skall vara i arbete. Ett centralt nyckelmått som kan förknippas med Keynesiansk effektivitet är kapacitetsutnyttjande.
     Efter mitten av 1930-talet, givetvis påverkad de höga arbetslöshetstalen och andra uttryck för lågt kapacitetsutnyttjande, kom Keynesiansk effektivitet att bli ett viktigt mål för politiken i de flesta OECD-länder. Praktiskt betydde det att man genom finans- och penningpolitik försökte styra den samlade efterfrågan över konjunkturcykeln.
    Under de senaste två decennierna har vi fått vänja oss vid ytterligare ett effektivitetsbegrepp, adaptiv effektivitet, det kallas ibland också Schumpeteriansk effektivitet. Det handlar om, precis som begreppet antyder, att ett land som vill nå hög relativ tillväxt måste ha en hög relativ anpassningsförmåga. Det är ingen tillfällighet att tillväxtpolitik har blivit ett allt oftare använt begrepp efter 1980.
    Tillväxtpolitik handlar om att främja den adaptiva effektiviteten. Konkurrens- och strukturfrågor, innovationssystem, entreprenörsfrågor, FoU och högre utbildning är sådant som hör till tillväxtpolitiken. Men också entreprenöriell kultur och värderingar som stöder förändringar och flexibilitet. Det kan till exempel finnas, jag har diskuterat det i min bok Det exploderande storföretaget (SNS, 2004), ett positivt samband mellan högt socialt kapital och tillväxt.
    Det tankeväckande är att hög adaptiv effektivitet idag av allt att döma är viktigare än allokativ effektivitet för det land som vill komma högt i OECDs länderjämförelser av BNP-tillväxt. Det är Douglass Norths uppfattning. I sin Nobelföreläsning från 1993 säger han just precis detta. ”It is adaptive rather than allocative efficiency which is the key to long run growth.” Samtidigt bygger det rimligen på att den allokativa effektiviteten i OECD-länderna efter 1980- och 1990-talens avregleringar på det hela taget nu är acceptabelt hög. Norths tydliga ställningstagande bör rimligen också tolkas så att ett högt kapacitetsutnyttjande alltid är eftersträvansvärt. De tre effektivitetsbegreppen kan liknas vid trappstegen i en Maslowsk trappa där man inte kan komma upp på de övre stegen utan att ha klarat av de undre. Eller uttryckt på annat sätt. En hög allokativ effektivitet genom avreglerade marknader, liksom ett högt kapacitetsutnyttjande genom väl genomtänkt stabiliseringspolitik, är i dag grundförutsättningar för att ett land genom tillväxtpolitik skall kunna uppnå hög uthållig relativ tillväxt.
   Om viktiga nyckelmått som vi kan förknippa med allokativ respektive Keynesiansk effektivitet är produktivitet respektive kapacitetsutnyttjande, är det mätbara måttet för adaptiv effektivitet just tillväxt. Tillväxten blir ett mål i sig.

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